viernes, 25 de marzo de 2011

Peripheral Nervous System (P.N.S)

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of all the nerves and ganglia outside the central nervous system (a ganglion is a mass of nerve cell bodies). They include nerves of external and internal organs. The PNS connects the CNS with all the parts of the body.
The peripheral nervous system is divided into two parts: the sensory division and the motor division. How these divisions of the peripheral nervous system are related to the rest of the nervous system is shown in Figure. Refer to the figure as you read more about the peripheral nervous system below.

The sensory division carries messages from sense organs and internal organs to the central nervous system. Human beings have several senses. They include sight, hearing, balance, touch, taste, and smell. We have special sense organs for each of these senses. Sensory neurons in each sense organ detect a certain type of stimulus, or input. For example, sensory neurons in the eyes detect light, and sensory neurons in the skin detect touch.
Our sense organs detect sensations, but they don’t tell us what we are sensing. That’s your brain’s job. The sense organs send messages about sights, smells, and other stimuli to the brain. The brain then interprets the messages. A particular area of the brain interprets information from each sense organ. For example, information from the nose is interpreted by the temporal lobe of the cerebrum.

The motor division of the peripheral system carries messages from the central nervous system to internal organs and muscles. As shown in Figure, the motor division is also divided into two parts:
The somatic nervous system
The autonomic nervous system.
The somatic nervous system carries messages that control the muscles and so the body movements.
The autonomic nervous system carries nerve impulses to internal organs. It is responsible for activities that are not under your control, such as sweating and digesting food. The autonomic nervous system has two divisions:
The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is the division that prepares the body for stressful situations. It is often referred to as the "fight or flight" system. The effects of this system are numerous, but generally include increasing heart rate, constricting blood vessels to the skin and viscera (thereby increasing blood flow to muscles), increasing pupil size and decreasing salivation. These responses all promote survival in a dangerous situation.
The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system prepares the body for restful situations and is often called the "rest and digest" system. Effects of the parasympathetic nervous system include slowing heart rate, increasing gastric motility, and increasing salivation. These responses help the body to recover as well as prepare for stressful situations by storing nutrients.
In this link you can find how acts each division.

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