domingo, 14 de noviembre de 2010

Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients. They do not provide energy. However, they are needed for good health.
Vitamins are substances that the body needs in small amounts to function properly. Humans need 13 different vitamins. Some of them are listed below . They have many roles in the body. For example, Vitamin A helps maintain good vision. Vitamin B9 helps form red blood cells. Vitamin K is needed for blood to clot when you have a cut or other wound.
Fat-soluble vitamins
Vit A
Needed for good vision (Carrots, spinach, eggs) - 600 μg (1 μg = 1 x 10-6 g)
Vit D Needed for healthy bones and teeth (Milk, salmon, tuna, eggs) - 5 μg
Vitn K Needed for blood to clot. (Spinach, Brussels sprouts, milk, eggs) - 60 μg
Water-soluble vitamins
Vit B1 Needed for healthy nerves (Whole wheat, meat, beans, fish - 0.9 mg (1 mg = 1 x 10-3 g)
Vit B9 Needed to make red blood cells. (Liver, peas, dried beans, green leafy vegetables) - 300 μg
Vit B12 Needed for healthy nerves. (Meat, liver, milk, shellfish, eggs) - 1.8 μg
Vit C Needed for growth and repair of tissues. (Oranges, red peppers, broccoli) - 45 mg
Some vitamins are produced in the body. For example, vitamin D is made in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight. Vitamins B12 and K are produced by bacteria that normally live inside the body. Most other vitamins must come from foods.
Not getting enough vitamins can cause health problems. For example, too little vitamin C causes a disease called scurvy. People with scurvy have bleeding gums, nosebleeds, and other symptoms. Getting too much of some vitamins can also cause health problems. The vitamins to watch out for are vitamins A, D, E, and K (fat-soluble vitamins). These vitamins are stored by the body, so they can build up to high levels.

Minerals are chemical elements that are needed for body processes. Minerals that you need in smaller amounts include iodine, iron, and zinc. Minerals have many important roles in the body. For example, calcium and phosphorus are needed for strong bones and teeth. Potassium and sodium are needed for muscles and nerves to work normally.Minerals that you need in relatively large amounts are listed below. (the quantity you need each day (at ages 9–13 years)
Calcium, needed for strong bones and teeth. (Milk, soymilk, green leafy vegetables) - 1,300 mg
Chloride, needed for proper balance of water and salts in body. (Table salt, most packaged foods) - 2.3 g
Magnesium, needed for strong bones. (Whole grains, green leafy vegetables) - nuts 240 mg
Phosphorus, needed for strong bones and teeth. (Meat, poultry, whole grains\ 1,250 mg
Potassium, needed for muscles and nerves to work normally (Meats, grains, bananas, orange juice) - 4.5 g
Sodium, needed for muscles and nerves to work normally. (Table salt, most packaged foods) - 1.5 g

Not getting enough minerals can cause health problems.For example, too little calcium may cause. This is a disease in which bones become soft and break easily. Getting too much of some minerals can also cause health problems. Many people get too much sodium. Sodium is added to most packaged foods. People often add more sodium to their food by using table salt (sodium chloride). Too much sodium causes high blood pressure in some people.

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