In order to get our diet as complete and balance we must consider, mainly, these criteria:
- Food should provide just the right amount of energy for carrying out our activities and for the development of the organism. Any excess or defect in this energy supply will be prejudicial.
- Diet should supply sufficient proteins, vitamins and minerals. Once again, any excess or defect in this energy supply will be prejudicial.
- With regard to the distribution of the foods which provide energy this should be done in accordance with the following table.
Rich in glucids – 55-60% of total number calories
Rich in lipids – 30% of total number calories
Rich in proteins - 15% of total number calories.
There other criteria to bear in mind like eating 22 g of fibre a day from veges and fruits to avoid constipation and not eating more tham 3g of salt a day to avoid the increase of blood presure and circulatory diseases.
Probably the most famous perfect diet is the Mediterranean Diet. It was the diet of many people around the Mediterranean Basin, especially in Spain, Italy and Greece. The original Mediterranean Diet main characteristics were:
- High consumption of virgin olive oil.
- High intake of vegetables and fruits and legumes.
- Consumption of fish, specially oily (or “bluish” one) three o for times a week
- Consumption of milk and derivates, cheese and yogurt (the original cheese was fresh goat cheese).
- Nuts as snacks
The Mediterranean Diet is the best way to prevent many diseases. The most important are the “brain ictus” or stroke (first cause of death in women and second in men) and the “myocardial infarction” or heart attack (the main cause in men), but are many more. It has been proved the important role of the Mediterranean Diet in the prevention of the metabolic syndrome (some health disorders of which the most important are: too much fat around the waist, high blood pressure and/or insulin levels and unbalanced levels of cholesterol.
The Mediterranean Diet is more than a diet. It is a lifelong living style. High activity, Mediterranean nutrition, anti stress attitudes and not much money shaped a culture that was declared Immaterial Human Heritage by UNESCO a few days ago. Nowadays, these circumstances have changed in the mediterranean countries, young people are changing their diet, but many responsible people are still keeping or returning to what is considered to be the healthiest diet in the world.