Appendicular Skeleton The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of>the upper and lower extremities.
The upper extremity consists of the bones of the shoulder (pectorla girdle), the arm, the forearm, the wrist, and the hand.
- Clavicle.—The clavicle (commonly called the collar bone) The clavicle and the scapula forms the pectoral girdle
- Scapula.—The scapula is a triangular bone that lies in the upper part of the back
- Humerus.—The humerus is the longest bone of the upper extremity and is often called the arm bone It articulates with the pectoral girdle to form the shoulder joint, and with the bones of the forearm to form the elbow
- Radius and Ulna.—When the arm is in the anatomical position with the palm turned forward, the radius is on the lateral (thumb) side and the ulna is on the medial (little finger) side of the forearm
- Carpal.—There are eight carpal bones, arranged in two rows, forming the wrist. Metacarpal.—The metacarpal bones are in the palm
- Phalanges.—The small bones of the fingers are called phalanges, and each one of these bones is called a phalanx. Each finger has three phalanges, except the thumb (which has two)
- Pelvic bones.— Commonly known as the hip, is a large, irregularly shaped bone composed of three parts: the ilium, ischium, and pubis
- Femur.—The femur, or thigh bone, is the longest bone in the body (fig. 1-24).
- Patella.—The patella is a small oval-shaped bone overlying the knee joint. It is enclosed within the tendon of the quadriceps muscle of the thigh.
- Tibia.—The tibia, or shin bone, is the larger of the two leg bones and lies at the medial side.
- Fibula.—The fibula, the smaller of the two leg bones, is located on the lateral side of the leg, parallel to the tibia.
- Tarsus.—The tarsus, or ankle, is formed by seven tarsal bones
- Metatarsus.—The sole and instep of the foot is called the metatarsus and is made up of five metatarsal bones
- The phalanges are the bones of the toes and are similar in number, structure, and arrangement to the bones of the fingers