axon : A long, membrane-bound extension of the cell body that passes the nerve impulse onto the next cell.
brain stem : Part of the brain involved with unconscious (autonomic) functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and temperature regulation
cell body : Part of a neuron that contains the nucleus and other organelles.
cerebellum : The part of the brain that is involved in coordination and control of body movement.
cerebral cortex :The highly-folded outer layer of the cerebrum; controls higher functions, such as consciousness, reasoning, emotions, and language.
cerebrum : The part of the brain that generally controls conscious functions such as problem-solving and speech.
central nervous system (CNS) : Made up of the brain and spinal cord; .
dendrites : Extend from the cell body and receive a nerve impulse from another cell.
interneurons : Neurons that connect sensory and motor neurons in neural pathways that go through the CNS; also called association or relay neurons.
motor neuron : Neuron that carries nerve impulses from the central nervous system to internal organs, glands, or muscles.
myelin sheath : An electrically insulating layer; covers the axon; speeds up the transmission of a nerve impulse along the axon.
nerve : An enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons.
nerve impulse : Electrical signal that is transmitted by neurons.
nervous system : Body system that controls all the other systems of the body.
neuron : The structural unit of the nervous system. This cell transmits electrical signals.
neurotransmitter : Chemical messages which are released at the synapse and pass the “message” onto the next neuron or other type of cell.
peripheral nervous system (PNS) : All the nerves of the body that lie outside the central nervous system.
sensory neurons : Neurons that carry signals from tissues and organs to the central nervous system; sometimes called afferent neurons.
spinal cord : A thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue that extends from the medulla oblongata (brain stem) and continues to the lower back
synapse : A specialized junction at which the axon of one neuron comunicate with dendrite of another neuron.